The construction of a stratigraphic framework for characterizing carbonate reservoirs is the first step in a series of interdependent analytical stages that ultimately yield a three-dimensional reservoir model. The stratigraphic layering scheme provides the constraining boundaries within which data is distributed away from the well bores into the interwell area. The positioning of these guiding surfaces has a primary effect on the quality and integrity of the reservoir model. High-frequency sequence stratigraphy is the methodology for integrating the core-wireline-seismic data into a genetically significant, testable 3-D framework. The emphasis in sequence stratigraphy on grouping genetically linked facies between chronostratigraphically significant surfaces is critical to the model construction process. This is because the sequence framework attempts to mimic the petrophysical layering, which is established in carbonate reservoirs by a cyclic alternation of more-or-less petrophysically-discrete layers.
A grasp of the historical underpinning of sequence stratigraphy and an internally consistent terminology of sequences, cycles, and lithostratigraphic units is presented up-front to level the playing field and to help with communication. Good communication can make or break the integration of a new technology such as reservoir-scale sequence stratigraphy. No engineer is interesting in adjusting a simulation grid to capture a maximum flooding surface because this is part of the sequence framework. However, if MFS is a name for a laterally continuous low permeability barrier that extends across 90 percent of the reservoir, the chances that grids will be bent to account for this feature are increased substantially.
The process of interpreting the reservoir volume