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Remediation means cleanup. Methods of soil remediation include the following (Figure 9.1): 1. Excavation followed by disposal in a landfill 2. In situ methods a. Soil venting b. Bioremediation 3. Excavation followed by onsite treatment a. Soil venting of soil pile b. Bioenhanced soil farming c. Thermal treatment (e.g., via rotary kiln) 9.1.1 Excavation Followed by Disposal in a Landfill Excavation of soil followed by disposal in a permitted landfill is used as a method of remediation when the soils are readily accessible for excavation, the contaminants are such that the landfill will accept the soil, and the cost is "right". This method remediates the site, but does not remediate the soil. The contamination is simply transferred to the landfill. Cost is usually calculated on a per ton basis. The trucks are loaded with soil and weighed, then weighed after dumping the load. Costs (excavation, loading, transportation, and tipping fee) for non-hazardous petroleum-contaminated soils might vary from $50. to $80. per ton. Using a conversion factor of 1.3 tons per cubic yard and a cost of $65./ton, an 8-foot deep excavation with an area of 20 feet on a side would be 118.5 yards. The soil would weigh about 154 tons, and the disposal cost would be about $10,000. Additional costs would probably include the costs of soil analyses (the landfill will want to know the contaminant content of the soil before agreeing to accept the soil).

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