Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Water Quality
Published:January 01, 1994
Organic compounds that are composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms are called hydrocarbons (HC). Classification of compounds, both natural and synthetic, is on the basis of chemistry and molecular structure.
5.1.1 Classification HC compounds are commonly classified as aliphatic or aromatic (Figure 5.1). The aliphatics are subdivided as follows: Aliphatic Alkane (= paraffin = chain) Unbranched (= normal = n-paraffin = n-alkane) Branched Naphthene (= ring = cycloparaffin) Alkene Alkyne Alkanes are unbranched or branched chains of C atoms each surrounded by four other atoms, generally H and other C atoms. The general formula is (CnH2n+2). If the carbon atoms are all approximately in a "line", the structure is said to be unbranched or normal or n-paraffin or n-alkane If one or more carbon atoms are located at an angle to the main "line" of carbon atoms, the structure is said to be branched or isoparaffin.
Figures & Tables
Introduction to Environmental Hydrogeology
These notes have been written to supply supporting material for a “short course” introduction to environmental hydrogeology. The assumption is that most people who take the short course (or purchase the notes without taking the short course) will be geologists, although the information could be useful to engineers or other scientists who desire an introduction to environmental consulting in general, or hydrogeology in particular. The notes, and course, are an introduction – a partial survey - of some aspects of environmental geology, with particular reference to subsurface hydrogeology and remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. No claim of completeness is made. Regulatory programs vary from state to state. The regulatory framework used in the state of New York is sometimes given as an example. The reader should be aware that rules and procedures may differ in other states.