Introduction to Hydrology
Published:January 01, 1994
A basic understanding of hydrology is central to the understanding of surface water degradation. A few basic facts concerning surface water are: • Surface water originates from meteoric water (e.g., rain and snow). • The dissolved chemistry of meteoric water will be a function of the chemistry of the air through which the water moves. • Surface water has a natural dissolved and particulate chemistry which varies with location and depends on the geology and biology of the terrain over which or through which the water has flowed. • Surface water resources are not infinite. • Surface water resources are not equally distributed either in a geographic sense or in a demographic sense. • Surface water can be used and reused, but its composition (quality) at any given point will be a function of its most recent history. • The ultimate endpoint of most surface water "flow" is the oceans. Therefore, the oceans are the ultimate repository of contaminants (unless the contaminants are removed from solution prior to reaching the ocean).
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Introduction to Environmental Hydrogeology
These notes have been written to supply supporting material for a “short course” introduction to environmental hydrogeology. The assumption is that most people who take the short course (or purchase the notes without taking the short course) will be geologists, although the information could be useful to engineers or other scientists who desire an introduction to environmental consulting in general, or hydrogeology in particular. The notes, and course, are an introduction – a partial survey - of some aspects of environmental geology, with particular reference to subsurface hydrogeology and remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. No claim of completeness is made. Regulatory programs vary from state to state. The regulatory framework used in the state of New York is sometimes given as an example. The reader should be aware that rules and procedures may differ in other states.