Published:January 01, 1994
The following is taken from a 1985 EPA publication (EPA/530-SW-85-007, May 1985). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have been concerned with the potential health hazards associated with exposure to asbestos since the early 1970s. The concern is based on medical evidence relating to exposure of airborne asbestos by asbestos workers and their families to various types of cancer as well as noncancerous respiratory diseases………
Description of Asbestos: Asbestos is a naturally occurring family of fibrous mineral substance. The typical size of asbestos fibers………is 0.1 to 10 µm in length……… when disturbed, asbestos fibers may become suspended in the air for many hours, thus increasing the extent of asbestos exposure for individuals within the area.
EPA regulations identify the following types of asbestos: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite, actinolite, and tremolite. Approximately 95 percent of all asbestos used in commercial products is chrysotile………asbestos fibers have been mixed with various types of binding materials to create an estimated 3,000 different commercial products. Asbestos has been used in brake linings, floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheet, paper products, textile products, and insulation. The amount of asbestos contained in these products varies significantly, from 1 to 100 percent, depending on the particular use.
The potential of an asbestos-containing product to release fibers is dependent upon its degree of friability. Friability means that the material can be crumbled with hand pressure and, therefore, is likely to emit fibers. The fibrous or fluffy spray-applied asbestos materials
Figures & Tables
Introduction to Environmental Hydrogeology
These notes have been written to supply supporting material for a “short course” introduction to environmental hydrogeology. The assumption is that most people who take the short course (or purchase the notes without taking the short course) will be geologists, although the information could be useful to engineers or other scientists who desire an introduction to environmental consulting in general, or hydrogeology in particular. The notes, and course, are an introduction – a partial survey - of some aspects of environmental geology, with particular reference to subsurface hydrogeology and remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. No claim of completeness is made. Regulatory programs vary from state to state. The regulatory framework used in the state of New York is sometimes given as an example. The reader should be aware that rules and procedures may differ in other states.