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Abstract

A 3-D acquisition geometry should be designed such that at the end of the acquisition and processing sequence the desired signal can be reliably interpreted and the noise is suppressed as much as possible. This chapter focuses on noise suppression.

The main types of noise are multiples and low-velocity noise such as ground roll and scattered energy. How much low-velocity noise can be suppressed depends on the choice of field arrays, the stack response (implicitly also on fold) and on various processing steps. One of the reasons to select a wide orthogonal geometry is that it allows tackling low-velocity noise by filtering in the shot as well as in the receiver domain. The total amount of multiple suppression depends on the stack response (implicitly also on range of offsets) and on the success of multiple elimination programs, but not on field arrays. At present there is no clear theory on how much noise can be removed in processing. As a consequence, the required noise suppression by field arrays and stacking is relatively unknown, and, to a large extent, the choice of field arrays and fold is dependent on experience.

In this chapter, the effect of field arrays on low-velocity noise and of the stack response on low-velocity noise and multiples is discussed. This chapter begins with a discussion of the properties of the low-velocity noise as essential knowledge for the optimal choice of field arrays (linear or areal, shot and/or receiver arrays). Another very useful piece of knowledge would be a quantitative assessment of the amount of noise (ground roll and scattered energy) relative to the desired primary energy.

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