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This chapter is devoted to analysis of seismic signatures of naturally fractured rocks. Unlike the previous chapters, where we discussed estimation of seismic anisotropy without addressing its underlying physical causes in detail, here we concentrate on anisotropy induced by the presence of aligned fractures. Our motivation for emphasizing this particular reason for effective anisotropy is purely practical: fractured formations contain substantial oil and gas reserves. Production of hydrocarbons from these formations is facilitated by networks of natural fractures that might provide highly permeable pathways for fluid flow.

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