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Application of seismic refraction techniques to selected complex mining exploration problems has been attempted using special procedures for operation and interpretation. In one area, the surface of an undulating bedrock under thickening cover was accurately derived on a point-by-point basis using actual raypath tracing techniques by means of the angle of emergence of the raypaths at adjacent detectors. In another area, an experimental program resulted in the direct detection and delineation of a low-velocity massive sulfide body. This was accomplished by fan shooting using emergence angles and ray-path tracings of the high-velocity rays that were diffracted by the boundaries of the body and using the time lag of the first arrivals of the direct raypaths that traversed the sulfide body.

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