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Operational factors in seismic refraction work at sea introduce problems which are not encountered in land refraction work. The most serious problem is uncertainty in the location of shot and detectors. Water breaks and record-to-record correlation on record sections sometimes can be used to determine the shot-to-detector distances. The necessity of using production marine reflection crews which are inexperienced in refraction work, cost factors, and usually a limited program require that one live with some of the problems. Mere awareness of the problems which arise is the major step toward avoiding or solving them. Bubble effects must be recognized if secondary events are to be used. The use of record sections helps avoid ambiguities in interpretation and greatly assists in the picking of secondary refraction events.

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