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In certain areas, such as the Delaware Basin in West Texas, thin, shallow high-velocity layers interfere with recording of refractions from deep horizons. Observations in model and field work show rapid attenuation of refracted energy in these screening layers. A model study also shows that refraction energy penetrates through these beds to deeper refractors and back to the surface. Under certain conditions this energy can be recorded.

Experimental field surveys confirmed the model study. Subsequently, this “thin-bed” refraction phenomenon has been exploited to map deep massive refractors in the Delaware Basin and in other places where shallow high-velocity layers had previously been thought to limit refraction penetration.

As the culmination of many ideas and observations on the behavior of refracted waves, Mr. K. E. Burg evolved a plan for mapping deep, low-frequency refractions beneath high-velocity shallow beds.

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