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Refraction formulas suitable for deep refraction work are applicable to shallow refraction profiling provided suitable allowance is made for the depth of shot which is ofttimes comparable to, or greater than, the thickness of the near-surface layers under investigation.

Thorough understanding of near-surface geology contributes materially to successful interpretation of refraction velocities.

Adoption of an orderly computing routine and a selection of computing aids are required to achieve both speed and accuracy of computation.


The exponential velocity-depth function, V=C(z+A)1/n, suggested by Banta, is developed for single-layer and two-layer systems. The solutions are applicable to low-velicity-layer corrections and to refraction seismic surveys. Families of curves representing the integrals involved in the expressions are presented and step-by-step procedures are provided.

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