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It may already have occurred to the reader that the concept of the emergence angle, which played such a fundamental role in the early Lessons, is not quite as simple in the three-dimensional problem.

In Figure 77, let s represent the plane of the surface of the earth. A plane wave front indicated by the area whose corners are each marked with a W is approaching the surface s. The point P is a point on s and on the wave front W. As the wave front W moves, it will occupy the position indicated by the section marked by W' in each corner at some time, say Δt seconds, later. The point pi on s and on the wave front W' is such that the line PP' is at right angles to the parallel traces of Wand W' on s.

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