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As has been mentioned, we must use mathematical methods to study our problem in its three-dimensional aspects. Accordingly, we shall have to use the usual three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate systems to get our results. However, it must be remembered that a coordinate system is only a device--analogous to a tool-to attain certain ends, and that these ends or results must therefore be independent of the coordinate system employed.

Experience has shown that many of our readers have difficulty in “seeing” three-dimensional pictures on the flat surface of a sheet of paper. This is unfortunate, and an attempt will be made to overcome this hurdle by developing the subject matter with a succession of figures. However, the best method of all is to have the reader make his own figures, expanding on them as the subject progresses. It has been suggested that the reader make cardboard models for many of the problems and in that way make matters easier to understand.

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