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In practice, refraction techniques can often be used to great advantage, and the exploration seismologist would do well to have an understanding of the values and limitations of the refraction method. As we shall see, the method does not yield as much detail as do the reflection seismograph techniques, nor does it, generally speaking, effectively explore to as great depths. Nonetheless, for the delineation of basin boundaries and determinations of velocities in media (which often serve to characterize those media), it can be of tremendous value. If the basement is not too deep, the thickness of the sediments can often be readily found by suitably placed refraction profiles. With variations of the basic method, other specialized problems cal). be solved. From time to time we shall indicate the possibilities inherent in the refraction method as we proceed to develop its various facets.

Our first chore is to study the most elementary problem: that of a bed in which the velocity, υ1, is bounded above by the horizontal plane of the earth and below by a parallel plane which serves as an interface between this bed and the next lower one in which the velocity is V2, which is greater than υ1.

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