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Consider a shot-point 0 on the surface, SS', of the ground under which we have a medium in which the velocity of propagation is VI. We shall assume this medium, or bed, to have a thickness of hI and to be separated from the next deeper medium, or bed, by a plane interface, II'. In this lower bed the velocity of propagation is V2, which we assume to be greater than VI, (V2>VI)' (See Figure 52.)

The shot at 0 generates a wave front which expands spherically. Consider the corresponding rays, or wave paths, associated with this wave front. One wave path moves along the surface SS' at a velocity VI. If detectors were placed along SS', this wave, sometimes called “first-kick” wave, would arrive in a travel-time t proportional to the distance x from the shot-point; i.e., for the travel-time of this wave, we have

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