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The preceding lessons have shown the very fundamental and important role played by the relationship existing between the slope of the time-distance curve (dt/dx) of a seismic “event” and the emergence angle of the corresponding wave.

There is yet another concept of equal importance in the study of “geometrical acoustics,” to coin a phrase, which we shall now introduce.

Consider a moving plane wave front which assumes the successive positions of the members of a family of parallel planes. Let its velocity of propagation in the medium be VI. Now suppose that this medium is bounded by a plane surface, called the interface, on the other side of which is a medium in which the velocity of propagation is V2, different from VI.

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