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Measurements of terrestrial heat flow have been made only in recent years. The first determinations of heat flow in the continents were published in 1939 by Bullard [37], and by Benfield [73], and results of oceanic heat-flow measurements were first given in 1952 by Revelle and Maxwell [26]. At present, about 2000 heat-flow observations are available and have been recently reviewed and analyzed by Lee and Uyeda [115]. The following list of data is based mostly on this work. (For a review of heat-flow measurement see[115].)

In early oceanic heat-flow measurements, temperature gradients were measured with metal probes equipped with temperature sensors that penetrated a few meters into the ocean bottom sediment. Conductivities were measured from cores taken at or near the site of temperature measurement. Recently, temperature sensors have been attached as outriggers to coring tubes. This technique combines coring (usually piston coring) and temperature-gradient measurement in one operation and offers deeper penetration. Although some thermal conductivities are estimated from the water or chlorine content of the bottom sediment, most of them are measured directly on cores, using a needle probe technique [116]. For a deep ocean station, it is common to correct conductivities measured in the laboratory by –4 per cent to bring them to ambient sea-bottom conditions. Since thermal conductivity of ocean sediments varies only slightly, some oceanic heat-flow values are determined by using the thermal conductivity of nearby stations. These values are enclosed in parentheses in the tables. Occasionally, a probe has not achieved full

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