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1. George, Jour. Geology, 32, 353, 1924

2. Tilley, Min. Mag., 19, 275, 1922

Table 4-1 was taken by Daly from a slightly longer compilation in his Igneous rocks and the depths of the earth (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 598 p., 1933). It is virtually the same as the list in the first edition of the Handbook of Physical Constants, but with more extensive data for dunites. For further data on the densities of igneous rocks see Tables 9-2, 21-2, and 21-4.

Table 4-4 lists a selection of values of porosity and density of sedimentary rocks. The selection illustrates porosity and density variations in relationship to rock type, and to age, locality, and depth of sample.

Porosity is expressed as either total or apparent porosity. Total porosity is a measure of the total void volume and includes those pores which may be sealed off, as well as those which are connected with the surface of the test, specimens. It is based on differences in measurement between total or bulk volume (V B ) and grain volume (V G ). The total porosity (P T ) by per cent is  
P T = 100 ( 1 V G V B )


1. Day, Sosman, and Hostetter, Am. Jour. Sci., 37, 1, 1914

2. Dane, E. B., unpublished

3. Douglas, Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour., 63, 145, 1907

4. Joly and Poole, Philos. Mag., 3, 1242, 1927

Alternatively, and more usually, grain density (DG) is substituted for grain volume, and bulk density (DB) for bulk volume.

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