Open Access, thanks to the authors’ funding. Article available to all readers via GSW (http://ammin.geoscienceworld.org) and the MSA web site.

In this issue

This New Mineral Names has entries for 10 new minerals, including bulgakite, dyrnaesite-(La), eleonorite, gatewayite, joanneumite, mendeleevite-(Nd), morrisonite, nolzeite, packratite, vanarsite and a new data on nalivkinite.

*
All minerals marked with an asterisk have been approved by the IMA CNMMC.
For a complete listing of all IMA-validated unnamed minerals and their codes, see http://pubsites.uws.edu.au/ima-cnmnc/.

Bulgakite* and New Data on Nalivkinite

A.A. Agakhanov, L.A. Pautov, E. Sokolova, Y.A. Abdu and V.Y. Karpenko (2016) Two astrophyllite-supergroup minerals: bulgakite, a new mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tajikistan and revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of nalivkinite. Canadian Mineralogist, 54(1), 33–48.

Bulgakite, (IMA 2014-041), ideally Li2(Ca,Na)Fe72+Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4(O,F)(H2O)2, is a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral. It occurs in the moraine of the Darai-Pioz glacier (39°30′N 70°40′E) in the upper Darai-Pioz alkaline massif in the upper reaches of the Darai-Pioz river, in the area of the joint Turkestan, Zeravshan, and Alay Ranges, Tajikistan. The Darai-Pioz massif is a multiphase intrusion and occupies the core of a large synclinal fold of Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian series) slates. Rocks of the massif have been intruded by fine-grained dikes of biotite tourmaline granites and veins of calcite carbonatites and fenites. Bulgakite was found in a naturally tumbled amphibole–quartz–feldspar boulder of spotty texture, as individual crystals and intergrowths in small cavities (up to 0.5 cm) and as intergrowths (up to 1 cm) of platy crystals and aggregates of poorly crystallized grains. Associated minerals are alkali amphibole, quartz, microcline, bafertisite, aegirine, calcybeborosilite-(Y), thorite, fluorite, and later crystallized brannockite and sogdianite. Bulgakite is brownish orange with a pale brown streak and a vitreous luster. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001} and moderate parallel to {010}. The indentation hardness of bulgakite is VHN50 = 204 (165–221) kg/mm2, corresponding to Mohs hardness of ~ 3. Dmeas = 3.30(2) g/cm3 (by flotation in Clerici liquid), Dcalc = 3.326 g/cm3. Bulgakite does not fluoresce under ultraviolet light. It is optically biaxial (+), α =1.695(3), β = 1.711(2), γ = 1.750(3), 2Vmeas = 70(5)°, 2Vcalc = 67° (λ = 589 nm). Dispersion of optical axes is strong r < v. Pleochroism is: X – intensive reddish brown, Y – light brown, Z – greenish light brown; X < Z < Y. The FTIR spectra show sharp absorption peaks characteristic of stretching vibrations of OH groups at ~3639 cm−1 (with a shoulder at ~3655 cm−1) and 3589 cm−1 (with a shoulder at ~3600 cm−1). The H2O bend peak is observed at 1622 cm−1, while Si–O stretches present as a strong band at ~1041 cm−1, a broad band centered at ~940 cm−1, and a small peak at 695 cm−1. The same peaks are observed in the Raman spectrum (532 nm laser source) at 910 cm−1, 733 (with a shoulder at ~785 cm−1), and 1041 cm−1. In addition, peaks at 660, 569, 420, 395, and 367 may be assigned to bending vibrations of the silicate groups, and those at 258, 233, 170, and 133 cm−1 are assigned to lattice modes. The electron probe EDS (Na, Zn, and F by WDS) analysis [wt% (ranges not provided)] is: SiO2 35.63, Al2O3 0.95, Na2O 1.04, K2O 3.27, Cs2O 0.31, CaO 2.56, MgO 0.16, ZnO 0.15, FeO 29.24, MnO 7.14, TiO2 11.07, Nb2O5 0.49, ZrO2 0.37, SnO2 1.18, F 1.01, Li2O 1.36 (AAS), Rb2O 0.85 (AAS), −F=O2 0.43, H2O 4.04 (calculated from crystal-structure analysis), total 100.38. The empirical formula based on 31.94 (O+OH+F+H2O) pfu, is (Li0.94K0.91Rb0.12Cs0.03)Σ2.00(Ca0.60Na0.40)Σ1.00(Fe5.342+Mn1.32Li0.25Mg0.05Na0.04Zn0.02)Σ7.02(Ti1.82Sn0.10Nb0.05Zr0.04)Σ2.01[(Si7.78Al0.24)Σ8.02O24]O2(OH)4(F0.70O0.30)[(H2O)0.941.06]Σ2.00, Z = 1. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [d Å (I%; hkl)]: 10.54 (100; 001), 3.50 (100; 003), 2.578 (100; 130), 2.783 (90; 14¯2), 1.576 (68; 35¯1, 32¯2¯), 2.647 (55; 2¯11). The unit-cell parameters refined from the powder data are: a = 5.3729(8), b = 11.926(2), c = 11.638(2) Å, α = 113.284(4), β = 94.560(4), γ = 103.085(4)°, V = 657.5 Å3. The mineral is triclinic, space group P1¯, Z = 1. A single-crystal X-ray data was obtained on a crystal of 0.12 × 0.10 × 0.004 mm. The single crystal unit-cell parameters are: a = 5.347(1), b = 11.965(2), c = 11.65(3) Å, α = 113.457(8), β = 94.533(8), γ = 103.08(1)°, V = 657.5 Å3. The crystal structure was refined to R1 = 0.0287 for 3592 observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections. In the crystal structure of bulgakite, there are four [4]T sites, occupied by Si with minor Al, which constitute the T4O12 astrophyllite ribbon. A [6]D site occupied mainly by Ti, along with the T4O12 astrophyllite ribbons constitute the heteropolyhedral (H) sheet. In the octahedral (O) sheet, there are four Fe2+-dominant [6]M(1–4) sites. Two H and the central O sheets form the HOH block, and adjacent HOH blocks link via a common anion (XPD) of two D octahedra. In the I (Intermediate) block between adjacent HOH blocks, there are two interstitial cation sites, A and B, and a W site, partly occupied by H2O. The aggregate content of the A site is (Li0.94K0.91Rb0.12Cs0.03)Σ2, ideally Li2 apfu. The [10]B site is occupied by (Ca0.60Na0.40). The W site is occupied by [(H2O)0.941.06]Σ2 pfu. The mineral is named bulgakite after Lev Vasil’evich Bulgak (born 1938), Russian mineralogist, gemologist, translator of geological literature, and discoverer of several new minerals who used to work from 1975 to 2003 at the A.E. Fersman Mineralogical Museum Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. The holotype specimen is deposited in that museum.

Nalivkinite (new data)

The description of bulgakite brought a new development in the crystal chemistry of the astrophyllite-supergroup minerals, the location of an H2O group in the intermediate (I) block of bulgakite, which required reinvestigation of the crystal structure of nalivkinite, ideally Li2NaFe72+Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4F (Agakhanov et al. 2008; Uvarova et al. 2008). This H2O group is a ligand of the Li atom at the [6]-coordinated A(2) site. Uvarova et al. (2008) reported [5]-coordinated Li at the A(2) site. In the proposal on bulgakite (IMA 2014-041), the issue of the [6]-coordinated A(2) site in bulgakite was outlined and it was suggested a revision of the crystal structure of nalivkinite that would result in the following ideal formula: Li2NaFe72+Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4F(H2O)2. The proposal was approved by the CNMNC (Agakhanov et al. 2014). An amount of 1.14 H2O pfu (at the W site) was calculated to achieve the [6]-coordinated environment of Li [A(2)] and thus recalculated the amount of H2O as 4.32 wt%. The presence of H2O groups in the nalivkinite structure was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. FTIR spectra show sharp absorption peaks that are characteristic of stretching vibrations of OH groups: peaks occur at ~3639 cm−1 (with a shoulder at ~3630 cm−1 (with a shoulder at ~3650 cm−1) and 3590 cm−1 (with a shoulder at ~3600 cm−1). A broad band at ~3490 cm−1 is attributed to H2O stretches. The H2O bend peak is observed at 1622 cm−1. The amount of 4.32 wt% of H2O calculated from crystal-structure analysis was added to the analysis published by Uvarova et al. (2008): SiO2 36.11, Al2O3 0.58, Na2O 1.88, K2O 2.68, Cs2O 0.93, CaO 1.24, MgO 0.11, ZnO 0.23, FeO 30.84, MnO 4.86, PbO 0.39, TiO2 9.48, Nb2O5 2.40, Ta2O5 0.61, ZrO2 1.47, SnO2 0.89, F 1.45, Li2O 1.30 (ICP-OES), Rb2O n.d., –F=O2 0.61, total 101.16 wt%. The revised empirical formula of nalivkinite is based on 32.14 (O+OH+F+H2O) pfu: (Li1.14K0.75Cs0.09Pb0.02)Σ2.00(Na0.71Ca0.29)Σ1(Fe5.622+Mn0.90Zr0.08Na0.08Mg0.04Zn0.04)Σ6.76(Ti1.56Nb0.24Sn0.09Zr0.08Ta0.04)Σ2[(Si7.86Al0.15)Σ8.01O24]O2(OH)4F[(H2O)1.140.86]Σ2.00. Dmeas = g/cm3 3.32(2) (by flotation in Clerici liquid), Dcalc = 3.347 g/cm3. New single-crystal X-ray diffraction data was collected on a crystal of twinned nalivkinite. Lattice parameters are a = 5.374(3), b = 11.948(5), c = 11.676(5) Å, α = 113.360(6), β = 94.538(8), γ = 103.01(1), V = 658.7 Å3, space group P1¯, Z = 1. The crystal structure was refined to R1 = 0.0452 for 3546 observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections.

Bulgakite is a Ca-analog of nalivkinite. Bulgakite and nalivkinite are related by the following substitution: 0.3 BCa2+ + 0.3 XO2− ↔ 0.3 BNa+ + 0.3 XF. F.C.

Dyrnaesite-(La)*

J.G. Rønsbo, T. Balić-Žunić and O.V. Petersen (2017) Dyrnaesite-(La) a new hyperagpaitic mineral from the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 103–111.

T. Balić-Žunić (2017) The crystal structure of the new mineral dyrnaesite-(La), Na8CeIVREE2(PO4)6. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 199–208.

Dyrnaesite-(La) (IMA 2014-070), with simplified formula Na8Ce4+REE2(PO4)6, is a new mineral found in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Dyrnaesite-(La) occurs in a hyperagpaitic arfvedsonite lujavrite as a primary late magmatic mineral in association with arfvedsonite, albite, microcline, nepheline, sodalite, aegirine, and analcime. It forms 0.2–0.7 mm subhedral grains that show twinning on {210} and {230}. The new mineral is pale yellowish green with white streak and vitreous luster. It is brittle with no cleavage and with an irregular fracture. Mohs hardness was not determined. Dmeas = 3.68(2) and Dcalc = 3.682 g/cm3. Dyrnaesite-(La) does not fluoresce in UV light. The mineral is optically biaxial (−), α = 1.623, β = 1.685, γ = 1.698; 2Vmeas = 47(1)° and 2Vcalc = 47.5; X = c, Y = a, Z = b. It is pleochroic in pale yellowish green tones; X > Y and Z. The average of 63 electron probe analyses on 9 grains (not specified EDS or WDS mode) is [wt% (St.dev.)]: P2O5 37.17 (0.28), SiO2 0.15 (0.04), CaO 0.90 (0.17), Na2O 20.06 (0.60), La2O3 16.44 (0.34), CeO2 20.23 (0.36) (valence based on structure refinement and charge balance), Pr2O3 1.40 (0.21), Nd2O3 3.47 (0.15), Sm2O3 0.24 (0.13), Dy2O3 0.06 (0.08), Y2O3 0.06 (0.04), total 100.18. This gives the empirical formula Na7.44Ca0.19Ce1.35La1.16Nd0.24Pr0.10 Sm0.02Y0.01(P6.02Si0.03)O24 based on 24 O apfu. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d Å (I%; hkl)] are: 6.57 (100; 101), 4.62 (40; 301,230,400), 3.50 (40; 331), 2.80 (86; 232,402), 2.67 (54; 060,630). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected on a crystal fragment of 0.002 mm3 refined to R1 = 0.037 and shows dyrnaesite-(La) is orthorhombic, Pnma; a = 18.4662(7) Å, b = 16.0106(5) Å, c = 7.0274(2) Å, V = 2077.7 Å3, Z = 4. The structural formula calculated from the diffraction data and microprobe analysis is Na7.89(Ce0.94Ca0.06)Σ1.00 (Ca0.12La1.14Ce0.40Pr0.10Nd0.24)Σ2.00(PO4)6. The structure of dyrnaesite-(La) is based on the aphthitalite/glaserite structure type and is related to the group of Na3REE(XO4)2 compounds (with X = P, V, As). The structure consists of phosphate tetrahedra arranged in a hexagonal pattern. Both the Ce and La sites share edges with three phosphate groups and vertices with three more. Na is observed in 6 sites, found in coordination numbers 6–9 with PO4 tetrahedra. Dyrnaesite-(La) is named after the base camp area, Dyrnæs (animal headland), north of the town of Narsaq, Kujalleq Kommune, South Greenland, with the suffix (La) describing the dominance of La as the REE component. The type material is preserved in the Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. O.C.G.

Eleonorite*

N.V. Chukanov, S.M. Aksenov, R.K. Rastsvetaeva, C. Schäfer, I.V. Pekov, D.I. Belakovskiy, R. Scholz, L.C.A. De Oliveira and S.N. Britvin (2017) Eleonorite, Fe63+(PO4)4O(OH)46H2O: Validation as a mineral species and new data. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 61–76.

Eleonorite (IMA 2015-003), ideally Fe63+(PO4)4O(OH)46H2O, is mineral species first found at the Eleonore Iron mine, Dünsberg, near Gießen, Hesse, Germany and has since been identified in oxidized zones of many other iron deposits where it was considered to be an oxidized variety of beraunite (Nies 1877, 1880; Streng 1881; Palache et al. 1951). The study concerns the formal validation of eleonorite mostly based on material from the Rotläufchen mine, Waldgirmes, Wetzlar, Hesse, Germany, which is considered as a neotype. Eleonorite most probably is a supergene mineral resulted from natural solid-state oxidation of beraunite that formed by the interaction of phosphate-rich solutions related to phosphorite deposits with late Devonian iron ores. The mineral is associated with goethite, rockbridgeite, dufrenite, kidwellite, variscite, matulaite, planerite, cacoxenite, strengite, and wavellite. Eleonorite forms prismatic crystals flattened on {100}, or with a rhombic cross section, up to 0.2 × 0.5 × 3.5 mm in size and in random or radial aggregates up to 5 mm across encrusting cavities in massive limonite. Major crystal forms observed are {100}, {301}, and { 301¯}. Crystals are red brown translucent with light red-brown streak and a vitreous luster. The cleavage is perfect on {100}, It is brittle with Mohs hardness of 3. Dmeas = 2.92(1) and Dcalc = 2.931 g/cm3. Eleonorite is optically biaxial (+) with α = 1.765(4), β = 1.780(5), γ = 1.812(6), 2Vmeas = 75(10)°. Dispersion of the optical axes is very strong, r > v. Optical orientation is X = b; the X- and Z-axes lie in the (100) plane at an angle close to 90° with one another. The new mineral is strongly pleochroic, Z (brown red) >> YX (brownish yellow). The main absorption bands of the IR spectrum (cm−1; s = strong, sh = shoulder) are: 3553, 3506, 3265s, 3205, 3120sh, 2930sh (O–H stretching vibrations of OH anions and H2O molecules), 1625, 1560sh (bending vibrations of H2O molecules), 1147, 1095sh, 1065sh, 1032s, 988s [ν3(F2) – antisymmetric P–O stretching vibrations of PO43 anions], 962s, 937s [ν1(A1) – symmetric P–O stretching vibrations of PO43 anions], 810sh, 676 (Fe3+⋯O–H bending vibrations), 588s [triply degenerate ν4(F2) O–P–O bending mode of PO43 anions]. Low-frequency bands observed at 500, 482, 443, 422, and 369 correspond to lattice modes involving Fe3+–O stretching and ν2(E) O–P–O bending vibrations, possibly combined with libration modes of H2O molecules. The average of 5 electron probe EDS analyses is [wt% (range)]: Al2O3 1.03 (0.81–1.36), Mn2O3 0.82 (0.60–0.97), Fe2O3 51.34 (50.60–52.08) (Mössbauer), P2O5 31.06 (30.57–3.49), H2O 16.4 (by chromatography of ignition products at 1200 °C), total 99.58. The empirical formula based on 27 apfu and structural refinement data is (Fe5.763+Al0.18Mn0.093+)Σ6.03(PO4)3.92O(OH)4.345.98H2O. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d Å (I%; hkl)] are: 10.41 (100; 200), 9.67 (38; 002), 7.30 (29; 202¯), 4.816 (31; 111,004), 3.432 (18; 600,114,404,313), 3.197 (18; 510, 511¯,006, 314¯,602), 3.071 (34; 314, 115¯). The unit-cell parameters refined from powder-diffraction data are: a = 20.694(6), b = 5.143(1), c = 19.236(7) Å, β = 93.52(2)°, V = 2044 Å3. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected on a crystal of size 0.13 × 0.15 × 018 mm refined to R1 = 0.068 for 2230 unique I ≥ 2σ(I) reflections shows eleonorite is monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 20.679(10), b = 5.148(2), c = 19.223(9) Å, β = 93.574(9)°, V = 2042.5 Å3, and Z = 4. Eleonorite is the analog of beraunite following heterovalent substitution of one Fe3+ ion as Fe3+ + O2− ↔ Fe2+ + OH. The structure of eleonorite is based on a heteropolyhedral framework formed by M(1–4)Ø6-octahedra (where M = Fe3+; Ø = O2−, OH, or H2O) and isolated PO4 tetrahedra, with a wide channel occupied by H2O molecules. Eleonorite is named after the Eleonore Iron mine. The neotype from the Rotläufchen mine and a specimen from the Gutglück mine, Braunfels, Wetzlar, Hesse, German are deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. O.C.G.

Gatewayite*, Morrisonite*, Packratite*, Vanarsite*

A.R. Kampf, J.M. Hughes, B.P. Nash and J. Marty (2016) Vanarsite, packratite, morrisonite, and gatewayite: four new minerals containing the [ As3+V124+,5+As65+O51] heteropolyanion, a novel polyoxometalate cluster. Canadian Mineralogist, 54, 145–162.

Secondary mineralization at the Packrat mine in the Gateway district, Mesa County, Colorado, U.S.A. (38°38ʹ51.28ʺN 109°02ʹ49.77ʺW), has yielded four new minerals containing the novel polyoxometalate-like heteropolyanion, [ As3+V124+,5+As65+O51], which is new to science. The four new minerals are gatewayite, morrisonite, packratite, and vanarsite and should be referred to as the vanarsite mineral family because vanarsite was the first of them to be approved. The four are found together on montroseite- and corvusite-bearing sandstone and are also closely associated with pharmacolite and a potentially new vanadate mineral. The new minerals formation resulted from the oxidation of montroseite-corvusite assemblages in a moist environment. The structures of the vanarsite family minerals consist of two distinct parts, a structural unit and an interstitial unit: the structural unit in all four vanarsite family minerals is the novel [ As3+V124+,5+As65+O51] heteropolyanion composed of twelve distorted V4+,5+O6 octahedra surrounding a central As3+O3 (arsenite) pyramid and decorated by peripheral As5+O4 (arsenate) tetrahedra, each of which shares three of its four vertices with VO6 octahedra (a mixture of V4+ and V5+); the stoichiometry and charge of the heteropolyanion varies from [As3+V24+V105+As65+O51]11 to [As3+V3.54+V8.55+As65+O51]12.5 and serves to balance the charge of the interstitial unit, which differs in each of the four minerals. The vanarsite family minerals are the only known minerals that contain both mixed-valence As and mixed-valence V. The holotype and/or cotype specimens of all those new species are deposited in the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Gatewayite (IMA 2014-096), ideally Ca6(As3+V34+V95+As65+O51)31H2O, occurs as very dark greenish-blue blades are more or less flattened on {101} and elongated on [010], which are up to 0.5 mm long and form divergent intergrowths. It also occurs as crude prisms, up to 1 mm long, with rounded faces and as composite crystals consisting of subparallel intergrowths of narrow prisms up to 2 mm long. Streak is grayish blue and luster is vitreous. Mohs hardness is ~2, fracture is curved, tenacity is brittle and cleavage is fair on {010} and {101}. Dmeas = 2.34(2) g/cm3 (by floatation in mixtures of methylene iodide and toluene) Dcalc = 2.337 g/cm3. The mineral is insoluble in H2O at room T and easily soluble in diluted HCl at room T. Optically, gatewayite is biaxial (−), α = 1.621(1), β = 1.654(5), γ = 1.668(5) (light not reported), 2Vmeas = 66(1)°, 2Vcalc = 65.0°. Dispersion is extreme (sense not determined). Y = b, X ^ a ≈ 30° in obtuse β. It is pleochroic: X = pale olive green, Y = medium greenish blue, Z = dark greenish blue; X << Y < Z. The average of electron probe WDS analysis (9 points in 7 crystals) [wt% (ranges)] is: Na2O 0.21 (0.09–0.37), CaO 12.31 (11.90–12.79), SrO 0.41 (0.20–0.66), As2O5 32.18 (29.62–34.43), V2O5 42.97 (41.95–44.32), total 88.08. The H2O loss results in higher concentrations for the remaining constituents than is to be expected for the fully hydrated phases; the analyzed constituents normalized to provide a total of 100% when combined with the calculated H2O are: Na2O 0.19, CaO 11.31, SrO 0.31, As2O3 3.60, As2O5 25.40, VO2 7.40, V2O5 31.39, H2O (on the basis of crystal structure) 20.33, total 100.00. The empirical formula based on V+As = 19 and 82 O apfu is: (Ca5.54Na0.17Sr010)Σ5.81(As13+V2.454+V9.485+As6.075+O51)31H2O. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d Å (I%); hkl not reported by the authors)] are: 13.2 (47), 11.1 (8), 9.7 (100), 3.246 (9), 2.953 (9), 2.866 (14), 2.810 (17), and 2.758 (9). The single-crystal unit-cell parameters are: a = 11.1850(4), b = 16.8528(4), c = 20.7146(15) Å, β = 91.166(6)°, and V = 3903.9 Å3, Z = 2, space group P21. The structure was refined to R1 = 0.053 for 9088 unique, observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections. In the structure of gatewayite, the interstitial unit consists of nine isolated H2O groups, four of which are partially occupied, and six Ca–O polyhedra that are sixfold- or sevenfold-coordinated. The Ca–O polyhedra share one, two, or three of their vertices with O atoms of the VO6 octahedra and/or AsO4 tetrahedra of the structural unit. The remaining vertices of the Ca polyhedra are H2O groups. The structural units are linked via the Ca–O polyhedra into a sheet parallel to {101}. The Ca polyhedra do not link to one another. The only linkage between these sheets is via hydrogen bonds. The interstitial unit, [Ca6(H2O)23·8H2O]12+, combines with the [As3+V34+V95+As65+O51]12 polyanion structural unit in the formula unit. Gatewayite is named for the Gateway mining district in which the Packrat mine is located. Gateway is also the nearest town to the Packrat mine.

Morrisonite (IMA 2014-088), ideally Ca11(As3+V24+V105+As65+O51)278H2O, occurs as very dark blue blades are flattened on {010} and elongated on [100]. They are up to about 1 mm long, striated lengthwise, and grow in sub-parallel and divergent intergrowths. Streak is grayish blue and luster is vitreous. Mohs hardness is ~2½, fracture is curved, tenacity is brittle, and cleavage is perfect on {010} and good on {100}. Dmeas = 2.29(2) g/cm3 (by floatation in mixtures of methylene iodide and toluene) Dcalc = 2.221 g/cm3. The mineral is insoluble in H2O at room T and easily soluble in diluted HCl at room T. Optically, morrisonite is biaxial (−), α = 1.611(2), βcalc = 1.631, γ = 1.637(2) (light not reported), 2Vmeas = 58(1)°. Dispersion is not observable. Y = b, Xa, Zc. It is pleochroic: X = blue, Y = dark blue, Z = dark blue; X << YZ. The average of electron probe WDS analysis (33 points in 13 crystals) [wt% (ranges)] is: Na2O 0.21 (0.01–0.57), CaO 11.82 (10.98–12.30, As2O5 32.71 (30.59–34.58), V2O5 42.79 (41.43–44.73), total 87.53. The H2O loss results in higher concentrations for the remaining constituents than is to be expected for the fully hydrated phases; the analyzed constituents normalized to provide a total of 100% when combined with the calculated H2O are: Na2O 0.18, CaO 10.36, As2O3 3.44, As2O5 24.63, VO2 5.14, V2O5 31.82, H2O (on the basis of crystal structure) 24.44, total 100.00. The empirical formula based on V+As = 38 and 180 O apfu is: (Ca10.61Na0.34)Σ10.95(As1.003+V1.784+V10.065+As6.165+O51)278H2O. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d Å (I%); hkl not reported by the authors)] are: 12.2 (69), 11.4 (100), 9.9 (16), 9.2 (23), 6.81 (12), 6.10 (11), 2.936 (16), and 2.839 (12). The single-crystal unit-cell parameters are: a = 14.9566(18), b = 48.208(6), c = 23.838(3) Å, β = 90.034(6)°, and V = 17187 Å3, Z = 4, space group P21/c. The structure was refined to R1 = 0.075 for 4194 unique, observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections. In the structure of morrisonite the interstitial unit consists of 10 well-defined Ca–O polyhedra in all of which the Ca atom is sevenfold coordinated. These Ca–O polyhedra share one, two, or three of their vertices with O atoms of the VO6 octahedra and/or AsO4 tetrahedra of the structural unit. The remaining vertices of these Ca–O polyhedra are H2O groups. A further 11th Ca site could not be well defined in the refinement. The structural units are linked via the Ca–O polyhedra, as well as by an extensive system of hydrogen bonds. The interstitial unit, [Ca11(H2O)78]22+, combines with two [As3+V24+V105+As65+O51]11 polyanion structural units in the formula unit. Morrisonite is named for the Morrison Formation, in which the Packrat mine and other U–V mines of the Uravan mineral belt occur.

Packratite (IMA 2014-059), ideally Ca11(As3+V24+V105+As65+O51)283H2O, occurs as very dark greenish-blue blades are flattened on {110} and elongated on [001]. They are up to about 1 mm long, striated lengthwise, and grow in sub-parallel and divergent intergrowths. It also occurs as pearly green, botryoidal aggregates. Streak is grayish blue and luster is vitreous. Mohs hardness is ~2, fracture is curved, tenacity is brittle and cleavage is fair on {001}, {110}, and { 11¯0}. Dmeas = 2.36(2) g/cm3 (by floatation in mixtures of methylene iodide and toluene) Dcalc = 2.351 g/cm3. The mineral is insoluble in H2O at room T and easily soluble in diluted HCl at room T. Optically, packratite is biaxial (−), αcalc = 1.625, β = 1.628(2), γ = 1.629(2) (light not reported), 2Vmeas = 60.7(4)°. Dispersion is moderate r < v. X ≈ ⊥ {110}, Z ^ c ≈ 20°. It is non-pleochroic. The average of electron probe WDS analysis (4 points in 2 crystals) [wt% (ranges)] is: Na2O 0.30 (0.25–0.38), CaO 11.29 (10.69–11.79), As2O5 31.28 (29.33–34.22), V2O5 40.23 (38.53–41.76), total 83.22. The H2O loss results in higher concentrations for the remaining constituents than is to be expected for the fully hydrated phases; the analyzed constituents normalized to provide a total of 100% when combined with the calculated H2O are: Na2O 0.27, CaO 10.27, As2O3 3.38, As2O5 24.29, VO2 5.57, V2O5 30.46, H2O (on the basis of crystal structure) 25.56, total 100.00. The empirical formula based on V+As = 38 and 185 O apfu is: (Ca10.72Na0.51)Σ11.23(As1.003+V1.974+V9.805+As6.235+O51)283H2O. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d Å (I%); hkl not reported by the authors)] are: 14.5 (49), 12.1 (49), 10.5 (100), 7.45 (20), 6.61 (16), 2.939 (22), 2.846 (19), and 2.732 (22). The single-crystal unit-cell parameters are: a = 18.0572(4), b = 19.4126(4), c = 24.0586(17) Å, α = 87.364(6), β = 86.266(6), γ = 79.267(6)°, and V = 8263.4 Å3, Z = 2, space group P1¯. The structure was refined to R1 = 0.0395 for 14 753 unique, observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections. In the structure of packratite, the interstitial unit consists of 24 isolated H2O groups and 11 Ca–O polyhedra that are sevenfold, eightfold, or ninefold coordinated. The Ca–O polyhedra share one, two, or three of their vertices with O atoms of the VO6 octahedra and/or AsO4 tetrahedra of the structural unit. The remaining vertices of the Ca polyhedra are H2O groups. The structural units are linked via the Ca–O polyhedra, as well as by an extensive system of hydrogen bonds. None of the Ca polyhedra links to another. The interstitial unit, [Ca11(H2O)5924H2O]22+, combines with two [As3+V24+V105+As65+O51]11 polyanion structural units in the formula unit. Packratite is named for the locality, the Packrat mine.

Vanarsite (IMA 2014-031), ideally NaCa12(As3+V3.54+V8.55+As65+O51)278H2O, occurs as very dark blue blades flattened on {100} and elongated on [010], which occur in subparallel intergrowths and form fan-like or finger-like aggregates up to about 5 mm in length. Streak is grayish blue and luster is vitreous. Mohs hardness is ~2, fracture is curved, tenacity is brittle and cleavage is fair on {100}. Dmeas = 2.48(2) g/cm3 (by floatation in mixtures of methylene iodide and toluene), Dcalc = 2.460 g/cm3. The mineral is insoluble in H2O at room T and easily soluble in diluted HCl at room T. Optically, vanarsite is biaxial (−), α = 1.645(5), due to the dark color in the Y and Z optical directions β and γ calculated based upon the independently measured retardation (α − γ = 0.04) and 2V value: βcalc = 1.677, γ calc = 1.681 (light not reported), 2Vmeas = 37(2)°. Dispersion not observable. Y = b, X ^ a ≈ 12° in obtuse β. It is pleochroic: X = cornflower blue, Y = dark blue, Z = dark blue; X << Z < Y. The average of electron probe WDS analysis (16 points in 8 crystals) [wt% (ranges)] is: Na2O 0.63 (0.43–1.22), CaO 13.08 (12.65–13.46), SrO 0.21 (0.10–0.35), FeO 0.04 (0.00–0.08), As2O5 31.61 (28.55–34.24), V2O5 43.89 (41.41–45.33), total 89.47. The H2O loss results in higher concentrations for the remaining constituents than is to be expected for the fully hydrated phases; the analyzed constituents normalized to provide a total of 100% when combined with the calculated H2O are: Na2O 0.54, CaO 11.30, SrO 0.19, FeO 0.03, As2O3 3.41, As2O5 23.34, VO2 9.55, V2O5 27.44, H2O (on the basis of crystal structure) 24.20, total 100.00. The empirical formula based on V+As = 38 and 180 O apfu is: (Ca11.70Na1.01Sr0.11Fe0.022+)Σ12.84(As1.003+V3.344+V8.765+As5.905+O51)278H2O. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d Å (I%); hkl not reported by the authors)] are: 13.1 (100), 10.0 (98), 9.3 (63), 7.87 (56), 4.67 (35), 4.44 (31), 3.339 (33), and 2.962 (32). The single-crystal unit-cell parameters are: a = 25.8515(5), b = 10.9416(2), c = 28.2861(6) Å, β = 102.215(1)° and V = 7828.9 Å3, Z = 2, space group P21/c. The structure was refined to R1 = 0.048 for 14 592 unique, observed [Fo > 4σFo] reflections. In the structure of vanarsite, the interstitial unit consists of seven isolated H2O groups, one insular Na(H2O)6 octahedron, and six Ca–O polyhedra that are either sevenfold or eightfold coordinated. The Ca–O polyhedra share two, three, or four of their vertices with O atoms of the VO6 octahedra and/or AsO4 tetrahedra of the structural unit. The remaining vertices of the Ca polyhedra are H2O groups. The interstitial unit, [Na(H2O)6Ca12(H2O)58·14H2O]25+, combines with two [As3+V8.55+V3.54+As65+O51]12.5 polyanion structural units in the formula unit. The name vanarsite is based on the composition of the mineral and specifically the fact that it contains vanadate, arsenite, and arsenate groups. F.C.

Joanneumite*

H.-P. Bojar, F. Walter and J. Baumgartner (2017) Joanneumite, Cu(C3N3O3H2)2(NH3)2, a new mineral from Pabellón de Pica, Chile and the crystal structure of its synthetic analogue. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 155–166.

The new mineral joanneumite (IMA 2012-001) ideally Cu(C3N3O3H2)2(NH3)2, triclinic, is the first mineral containing the isocyanurate anion, (C3N3O3H2). It was discovered in the guano deposit at Pabellón de Pica Mountain, Iquique Province, Tarapacá Region, Chile (20°54′50″S, 70°08′25″W). A convergence of a small disseminated Cu mineralization in the hosting gabbro with the nitrogen-rich guano sites on its top led to formation of unique mineralization. Three minerals containing NH3 (ammine) group (ammineite, shilovite, chanabayaite) were discovered here along with an alkali-ammonia-copper-sulfate möhnite and alkali-copper-oxalate antipinite. Joanneumite is closely associated with salammoniac, dittmarite, möhnite, and gypsum filling small cracks in gabbroic rocks. It forms violet microcrystalline aggregates up to 2 mm showing sometimes well-shaped cubic crystals which are pseudomorphs after unidentified mineral. The new mineral is transparent, vitreous with a pale violet streak and is non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is 1. The density was not measured due to the lack of the suitable material; Dcalc = 2.020 g/cm3 for an ideal chemical formula. The optical properties were not obtained. The FTIR spectrum of joanneumite is identical to its synthetic analog trans-[Cu(cyan-κN)2(NH3)2]. The main absorption bands of the IR spectrum (cm−1; s = strong, m = medium, w = weak) are: 3331s, 3266w, 3182m, 3159m, 3012s, 2968w, 2852m, 2805m (N–H stretching vibrations of amine groups); 1786w, 1733s and 1097m, 1089w (C–O stretching vibrations of the isocyanurate complex); 1678m, 1628m, 1602s, 1512w, 1482m, 1453m, 1423m, 1478s (C–N stretching); 1249s (N–H deformation vibrations); 816m (C–N deformation); 773s, 755w, 738s, 712w (πC–O); 689m, 551s, 454s, 427s (C–N–C, C–O, and N–C–O deformation vibrations). The bands related to H2O molecules and OH ions were not detected. The average of 10 electron probe EDS analysis (using a rasterized beam and gold-coated samples) is [wt% (range)]: C 20.33 (19.21–21.50), N 31.11 (30.31–32.00), O 28.34 (27.32–27.42), Cu 17.27 (16.72–17.57), Zn 0.24 (0–0.60), H 2.82 (calculated from the structural formula), total 100.11. No other elements with an atomic number >8 were detected. This corresponds to empirical formula Cu0.96 Zn0.01N7.84C5.98O6.25H9.96 based on 31 atoms pfu. The idealized formula is CuN8C6O6H10 and the structural formula is Cu(C3N3O3H2)2(NH3)2. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d Å (I%; hkl)] 6.52 (68; 010), 5.15 (47; 011), 4.66 (21; 100, 1¯10), 4.35 (9; 1¯11), 3.29 (6; 1¯20), 3.22 (7; 1¯1¯1), 3.140 (100; 1¯21), 2.074 (7; 1¯32). The unit-cell parameters refined from powder diffraction data of joanneumite at 293 K are: a = 5.042(1), b = 6.997(1), c = 9.099(2) Å, α = 90.05(3), β = 98.11(2), γ = 110.95(3)°, V = 296.3 Å3. Joanneumite is triclinic, space group P1¯. The powder diffraction patterns of joanneumite and its synthetic analog are identical. Due to the lack of suitable natural single crystals the synthetic analog of joanneumite was prepared for the single-crystal structure refinement. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R = 0.025 based upon 1166 unique I > 2σ(I) reflections. The unit-cell parameters obtained from single-crystal data at 100 K: a = 4.982(1), b = 6.896(1), c = 9.115(2) Å, α = 90.53(3), β = 97.85(3), γ = 110.08(3)°, V = 290.8 Å3, Z = 1. The basic structural unit consists of two isocyanurate rings and two ammine ligands each bound through nitrogen atoms to a central Cu atom located at the inversion center, having a distorted square-planar coordination of N atoms. The isocyanurate rings build a topological crenellated ribbon by pairs of hydrogen bonds. The isocyanurate rings are oriented to a layer parallel to (1¯21). The three hydrogens of the ammine groups connect these layers into a three-dimensional network by hydrogen bonds. Practical identity of chemical, power XRD and FTIR data allows to conclude that the crystal structure of joanneumite is identical with the structure of the synthetic bis (isocyanurato) diamminecopper (II). The basic structural unit in the joanneumite structure is similar to that of ammineite, CuCl2(NH3)2. The two Cl atoms in the ammineite structure are replaced by two isocyanurate groups in the joanneumite structure. Joanneumite is named for the Universalmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria which had its bicentennial in 2011 and where the type specimen has been deposited. D.B.

Mendeleevite-(Nd)*

A.A. Agakhanov, L.A. Pautov, E. Sokolova, F.C. Hawthorne, V.Yu. Karpenko, O.I. Siidra and V.K. Garanin (2010) Mendeleevite-(Nd), (Cs,□)6(□,Cs)6(□,K)6(REE,Ca)30(Si70O175)(OH,H2O,F)35, a new mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tajikistan. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 135–141.

Mendeleevite-(Nd) (IMA 2015-031), ideally (Cs, □)6(□,Cs)6(□,K)6 (REE,Ca)30(Si70O175) (OH,H2O,F)35, is a new mineral species coming from the upper Darai-Pioz alkaline massif (located at the juncture of Turkestan, Alay, and Zeravshan Ranges), a ring structure of biotite granites, and aegirine- and quartz-bearing syenites, which occupies the core of a large synclinal fold of terrigenous rocks and schists. The massif has been intruded by alkaline pegmatites, fenites, and carbonatites. Mendeleevite-(Nd) was found in a pectolite aggregate in quartz-rich rocks, which consist mainly of medium-coarse to granular quartz. Brownish-gray nest-like clusters of pectolite aggregate (1 to 30 cm wide) mainly consist of fine to medium pectolite grains, quartz, aegirine, and fluorite, with minor khvorovite, mendeleevite-(Ce), sokolovaite, hyalotekite, orlovite, kirchhoffite, pekovite, neptunite, zeravshanite, senkevichite, nordite-(Ce), alamosite, pyrochlore-group minerals, and baratovite. Mendeleevite-(Nd) occurs as transparent, colorless, sometimes with a pale brown hue, crystals 10–40 μm in size. It is brittle, with conchoidal fracture. Streak is white, luster is vitreous, while cleavage and parting have not been observed. The indentation hardness VHN50 = 621 (491–672) kg/mm2 corresponding to Mohs hardness of 5–5.5. Mendeleevite-(Nd) is not soluble either in water, or in HCl (1:1). It does not luminesce under UV light. Dmeas = 3.20(2) g/cm3 (by flotation), Dcalc = 3.155 g/cm3. Mendeleevite-(Nd) is optically isotropic, n = 1.582(2). IR spectrum shows the following absorption bands 408, 1612, 1011, 980, 695(shoulder), 547(shoulder). The average of 12 electron probe WDS analyses in 2 grains is (wt%, range): SiO2 42.30 (41.65–43.22), Gd2O3 1.69 (1.41–2.07), Eu2O3 0.47 (0.18–1.06), Sm2O3 4.19 (3.57–4.56), Nd2O3 16.19 (15.25–16.85), Pr2O3 2.79 (2.28–3.53), Ce2O3 10.12 (9.72 – 10.78), La2O3 3.60 (3.23–4.11), SrO 2.99 (2.15–3.60), CaO 2.20 (1.93–2.65), Cs2O 8.50 (7.18–9.55), K2O 0.85 (0.12–1.73), F 1.25, H2O [calculated form charge balance and stoichiometry by analogy with mendeleevite-(Ce)] 3.85, –O=F2 0.53, total 100.46. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 210 (O+F) apfu is: Cs6(□4.20K1.80)Σ6.00{[(Nd9.57Ce6.13Sm2.39La2.20Pr1.68Gd0.93 Eu0.27)Σ23.17(Ca3.90Sr2.87)Σ6.77]Σ29.940.06}Σ30(Si70.03O175)(OH14.47F6.54)Σ21.01 (H2O)14, Z = 2. The strongest lines of the X-ray powder pattern [d Å (I%; hkl)] are: 15.63 (55; 110), 12.73 (40; 111), 11.01 (100; 002), 4.07 (30; 234,205,324), 3.56 (30; 116,325,235), 3.47 (42; 206,026), 3.099 (42; 345,435,055), 2.192 (42; 0.0.10,608), 1.819 (41; 3.6.10). The unit-cell parameter refined from the powder data are a = 21.9106(4) Å, V = 10 518.7 Å3. The extinction laws in the X-ray powder data are in accord with the space group Pm3¯, as in mendeleevite-(Ce) (Sokolova et al. 2011). The same space group has been therefore assigned mendeleevite-(Nd) structure. Mendeleevite-(Nd) is the Nd-analog of mendeleevite-(Ce). Both minerals differ in the dominant REE element, Nd and Ce, with a slight change in amount of REE and Ca(+Sr): REE23Ca7 [mendeleevite-(Nd)] and REE22Ca6 mendeleevite-(Ce)] accompanied by change in the OH:H2O ratio: 14.46:14.00 [mendeleevite-(Nd)] and 10.17:17.75 [mendeleevite-(Ce)]. Both minerals are named after Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907), the great Russian chemist, author of the periodic table of chemical elements, who has had a significant impact on the development of natural sciences and industry, both in Russia and around the world. The holotype specimen has been deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. F.C.

Nolzeite*

M.M.M. Haring and A.M. McDonald (2017) Nolzeite, Na(Mn, □)2[Si3(B,Si) O9(OH)2]·2H2O, a new pyroxenoid mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(1), 183–187.

Nolzeite (IMA 2014-086), ideally Na(Mn, □)2[Si3(B,Si)O9 (OH)2]·2H2O, is a new mineral found in altered sodalite syenite at the Poudrette quarry, La Vallée-du-Richelieu, Montérégie (formerly Rouville County), Québec, Canada. Nolzeite is a late-stage mineral likely forming under alkaline conditions over a narrow range of low pressures and temperatures. The new mineral was found in ~ 1 cm diameter vugs in a loose boulder (~1 × 1 m) of sodalite syenite in association with aegirine, nepheline, sodalite, eudialyte-group minerals, analcime, natron, pyrrhotite, catapleiite, steedeite, and an unidentified mineral. Crystals are euhedral, acicular and elongate along [001] with average dimensions of 5 × 8 × 55 μm and occur as radiating to loose, randomly oriented groupings within vugs. Pinacoid forms {100}, {010}, and {001} are observed. Crystals are pale green to colorless with a white streak and a vitreous luster. Density and Mohs hardness and full set of an optical data were not measured due to small crystal size. Nolzeite is assumed to be a biaxial, nmin = 1.616(2) and nmax = 1.636(2). It has positive elongation, and is non-pleochroic. Unlike the closely related species steedeite, nolzeite does not show any fluorescence under short-, medium-, or long-wave UV radiation. Absorption bands of the IR spectrum (cm−1) are observed at ~2800–3600 (O-H stretching), a moderately sharp band is observed at 1631 (H-O-H bending), and strong, sharp bands are observed at ~650–700, ~800–840 (symmetric Si-O bending), and ~900–1100 (asymmetric Si-O bending or possibly B-O bending. Absorption bands of the Raman spectrum (cm−1) are observed at ~3600–3300 and 1600–1500 (O-H and H-O-H bending), 1300–1200 (B-OH bending), 1030–800 (Si-O-Si stretching), and 700–500 and 400–50 (Mn-O and Na-O bonding, respectively). The average of 6 electron probe EDS analyses on 4 crystals of nolzeite is [wt% (range)]: Na2O 7.34 (6.30–8.10), CaO 0.29 (0.21–0.35), MnO 27.29 (25.99–28.52), FeO 0.83 (0.76–0.93), SiO2 44.17 (43.30–45.35), SO3 0.67 (0.35–1.02), B2O3 (calc. based on charge balance) 5.45, and H2O (calc. based on charge balance) 12.16, total 98.20. This gives the empirical formula Na1.04(Mn1.690.24Fe0.05Ca0.02)Σ2.00 (Si2.96S0.04)Σ3.00(B0.70Si0.30)Σ1.00O9(OH)2·2H2O based on 13 anions pfu. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d Å (I%; hkl)] are: 10.131 (100; 001¯), 2.808 (50; 211¯, 22¯0, 11¯3¯, 12¯3¯), 6.911 (16; 01¯0), 3.026 (15; 02¯3¯), 3.593 (13; 01¯3), 2.675 (12; 01¯3¯). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected on a crystal of size 7 × 8 × 60 μm refined to R1 = 0.1281 for 1361 unique reflections with I ≥ 4σ(I) shows nolzeite is triclinic, space group P1¯ with a = 6.894(1), b = 7.632(2), c = 11.017(2) Å, α = 108.39(3), β = 99.03, γ = 103.05(3)°, V = 519.27 Å3, and Z = 2. Nolzeite is a chain silicate closely related to steedeite and members of the sérandite-pectolite series. The structure of nolzeite is based on chains of tetrahedra with a periodicity of three consisting of three symmetrically independent SiO4 tetrahedra forming C-shaped clusters closed by BO2(OH)2 tetrahedra, producing single loop-branched dreier borosilicate chains that are in turned linked through shared corners to double chains of edge-sharing MnO5(OH) octahedra. Nolzeite is named after Gert Nolze (b. 1960), a crystallographer at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin, Germany, notably for his part in developing the extensively used program Powdercell. Holotype material is housed in the Canadian Museum of Nature, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. O.C.G.