Sewer networks and their associated utility trenches may strongly influence the effects of urbanization on a groundwater system (Sharp et al., 2003; Garcia-Fresca and Sharp, 2005; and Shepley et al., 2020). Sewer construction methods commonly require placement of coarse granular material in the bedding of the utility trench, which may have a hydraulic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding geological materials, therefore representing a preferential flow zone (Sharp et al., 2003; Garcia-Fresca and Sharp, 2005; and Shepley et al., 2020).

At the sewer elevation, the width of a utility...

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