Earth science students are challenged to acquire the depth and breadth of knowledge and skills needed for professional work. How are they being educated to observe; reason spatially and temporally; measure and analyze data with new technologies; assemble fragmented and insufficiently documented data from varied sources, including geophysics, lab analyses, and observations; test hypotheses; compile maps by various methods; and report orally and in writing as part of the development of critical thinking skills? Similarly, how are future middle and high school teachers being trained in the earth sciences to prepare their students to be a scientifically literate populace prepared...

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