Characterization of planar discontinuities such as bedding, joints, and faults is an essential element of successful rock engineering. Discontinuities exert considerable influence over the shear strength and permeability of rock masses, which are important considerations in the evaluation of slope or tunnel stability, groundwater flow, and contaminant transport problems in rock. Discontinuities also control in situ block sizes that can be important when assessing the adequacy of potential riprap or armor-stone sources, the susceptibility of bridge foundations to scour during floods, and the sizes of rock blocks susceptible to sliding or falling along steep slopes.

The bias introduced by sampling...

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