The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is investigating innovative construction techniques for future civil works construction. One of these investigations concerns the use of controlled low-strength materials (CLSM) as a backfill material. CLSM was defined by the American Concrete Institute's (ACI) Committee 116R as “… materials that result in a compressive strength of 1,200 psi (8.3 MPa) or less” (ACI, 1990, p. 19). CLSM is described in ACI 229R (ACI, 1994) as “… self-compacting, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in lieu of compacted fill.” Unlike compacted backfill, CLSM mixtures do not require compaction...

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