This study defines the depositional systems of mature lower Atoka Group reservoirs, structural influence on their sedimentation, and sand-transport patterns at a higher degree of resolution and over a significantly larger part of the play area than previously conducted. The reservoir systems are characterized by pronounced variations in depositional style, even between stratigraphically adjacent systems. They represent a variety of on-shelf siliciclastic depositional facies, including gravelly braided river, fluvial-dominated delta, and low-sinuosity incised river deposits. Penecontemporaneous, high-angle, basement-rooted reverse faults and genetically associated folds of the Mineral Wells–Newark East fault system exerted direct control on the orientation of complex fluvial-channel and delta-distributary sand-transport pathways and the geometry of deltaic depocenters. Multiple contemporaneous source areas, including the Ouachita fold belt to the southeast, the Muenster arch to the northeast, and the south flank of the Red River arch, also contributed to the complexity of sandstone trends in the lower Atoka play area.
Bubble maps of normalized per-well first-year production and total cumulative production allow qualitative conclusions regarding geologic controls on production distribution. Most wells with optimal gas production occur within two northwest-trending production fairways that coincide with primary sandstone trends of one or more reservoir systems. Highest per-well oil production exists where lower Atoka reservoir facies occur above oil-prone Barnett Shale source rocks (vitrinite reflectance <1.1% Ro) in the western and northwestern parts of the study area. Widespread fault-bounded, karst-produced sag structures that extend vertically from the source rocks through the lower Atoka Group most likely served as hydrocarbon-migration conduits and formed traps for both oil and gas.