Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) imagery was used to identify anomalous areas caused by hydrocarbon leakage in Fula'erji in the western slope of Songliao Basin, China. Three image enhancement techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA), band ratioing, and false-color composition (FCC), were used. Based on the spectral characteristics of hydrocarbon-induced minerals and the eigenvectors of PCA, the best four principal components (PCs), 1345-PC3 (the third component of the PCA on bands 1, 3, 4, and 5), 1357-PC3, 3457-PC4, and 123457-PC4, were selected for FCC combined with band ratios of 3/1, 4/3, and 7/5. According to the tonal characteristics of the surface near wells and their visual expression, four FCC images were acquired for hydrocarbon-induced area delineation. The result indicates that anomalies are expressed as a faint tone blob and are mostly located in the Holocene sediments. An analysis of two cross sections traversing the identified anomalies suggests that they are closely related to the anomalous area interpreted from the four FCC images. Field data of magnetic susceptibility and delta carbonate are consistent with the distribution of the tonal anomalies and suggest a positive spatial association between the identified anomalous area and the hydrocarbon leakage environment.