Saller et al. (2006) have concluded that leaves in the upper Miocene turbidite sands were the main source of oil and gas in the deep-water Kutei Basin, East Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. They have reported that oils from the Kutei Basin have high (4–7) pristane/phytane ratios, suggesting a coaly organic source. This is consistent with other observations made on oils from the Gippsland Basin in Australia, showing high pristane/phytane ratios (5–6) that were attributed to coniferous rain forests and related land-plant organic matter (Shanmugam, 1985). Saller et al. (2006) have also concluded that leaf fragments were carried into deep...

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