Ideally, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs requires information about heterogeneity at a submeter scale in three dimensions. Detailed geologic information and permeability data from surface and cliff face outcrops and boreholes in the alluvial part of the Ferron Sandstone are integrated here with three-dimensional (3-D) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data for analysis of a near-surface sandstone reservoir analog in fluvial channel deposits. The GPR survey covers a volume with a surface area of 40 x 16.5 m and a depth of 12 m. Five architectural elements are identified and described in outcrop and well cores, using a sixfold hierarchy of bounding surfaces. Internally, the lower four units consist of fine-grained, parallel-laminated sandstone, and the upper unit consists of medium-grained, trough cross-bedded sandstone. The same sedimentary architectural elements and associated bounding surfaces are distinguished in the GPR data by making use of principles developed in seismic stratigraphic analysis.
To facilitate comparison of geologic features in the depth domain and radar reflectors in the time domain, the radar data are depth migrated. The GPR interpretation is carried out mainly on migrated 100 MHz data with a vertical resolution of about 0.5 m. Measures of the spatial continuity and variation of the first- and second-order bounding surfaces are obtained by computing 3-D experimental variograms for each architectural element (each radar facies). The maximum correlation length of the dominant internal features ranges between 4 and 6 m, and the anisotropy factor ranges between 0.6 and 0.95.