Environmental reconstruction of rocks of the Richmond slice, the tectonically highest slice at the eastern end of the Hamburg klippe in Pennsylvania, indicates that these rocks were deposited on a northwest-facing passive continental margin in Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician time. Detailed sedimentologic studies suggest that they can be divided into four main lithologic types, each bearing the imprint of one or more processes involved in its deposition. These include: (1) thin to thick-bedded, massive to graded, parallel and cross-laminated grainstone or calcarenite (high density turbidity currents; fluidized flows); (2) thin to medium-bedded, massive to structureless, graded and cross-laminated black...

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