Hydraulic, osmotic, and electro-osmotic conductivities of sodium kaolinite were measured as a function of compaction pressure ranging from 1 atm to approximately 600 atm. The data were used to estimate the relative importance of osmosis and electro-osmosis, compared with hydraulic flow, through confining beds at different depths of burial. The results indicate that Darcy’s law is not a sufficient basis for predicting either the magnitudes or the directions of liquid movement through deep confining beds.

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