The use of expendable radio sonobuoys and a nonexplosive (air gun) sound source for shallow-water refraction studies has shown that the sonobuoys can produce excellent refraction and wide-angle reflection data, and that measurements can be made during normal reflection profiling operations utilizing the same source of acoustic energy. The data are recorded in a manner that permits immediate analysis, thus better enabling the investigator to guide and evaluate a survey while it is in progress.

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