Initial movements of the Ozark uplift and Chatauqua arch began in Late Ordovician time; attendant subsidence in northern Kansas formed a basin which was later bisected by the Nemaha anticline. Post-Mississippian, pre-Atokan peneplanation preceded renewed uplift of the Nemaha anticline and downwarping of the area to the east to form the Forest City basin which was separated from the Cherokee basin to the south until middle Cherokee time. Northeast-trending folds developed after Mississippian deposition, whereas previous structural orientation was northwestward.

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