I wish to discuss a minor point in the thought-provoking paper of Martin (1966), “Paleogeomorphology and its application to exploration for oil and gas (with examples from western Canada).” The paper leaves the false impression that caves originate in the vadose zone above the water table (see especially p. 2281, Fig. 2B-I; p. 2282; p. 2300; p. 2302).

Because enterable caves are in the vadose zone, they have vadose features such as dendritic drainage patterns, incised meanders in cave walls, and collapse chambers; however, since Davis (1930) proposed that caves could be formed under phreatic conditions, considerable evidence has...

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