Petroleum production in the Middle East countries in 1959 totalled 1,678,553,000 bbls., an average of 4,598,606 b./d. This is comparable with a total production of 1,559,533,000 bbls. in 1958 - an average of 4,272,884 b./d. Production in Pakistan in 1959 totalled 2,335,000 bbls., an average of 6,398 b./d. This compares with a total of 2,271,379 bbls. in 1958, an average of 6,207 b./d. Production in India during 1959 is estimated to have totalled 3,467,000 bbls., an average of 9,500 b./d. This compares with an estimated production of 3,102,000 bbls. in 1958, an average of 8,500 b./d. Although 3 new districts were opened for bidding in Iran during 1959, the only important concession granted anywhere in the Middle East or adjacent countries during the year was in the Yemen. Some renewed interest in Lebanon was shown. Drilling commenced in 3 offshore licenses in the Persian Gulf during the year. With the exception of the above, exploratory effort, in general, remained at about the 1958 level. A possibly commercial discovery was made in the Syrian region of the U.A.R. Some small gas accumulations were noted in Pakistan and gas shows were recorded in Israel. Expansion in production, pipe line, and/or terminal facilities was underway or completed in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and India. Refining capacity is being increased in Turkey and India.