Beyond the fundamental principles, surveying techniques are largely individualistic. Various patterns of instrumental manipulation, note keeping, calculation, and field procedure have been developed and used, depending on requirements of diverse field problems. A seasoned instrument man’s repertory may reflect little of his formal instruction in surveying, chiefly because most textbooks or courses of instruction have insufficient space or time to treat a wide variety of specialized applications of basic principles. Surely most of the modifications of technique have been independently discovered and rediscovered hundreds of times; but the benefits of such resourceful discoveries are usually shared only by limited personal...

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