The Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is divided into nine natural regions, each with distinct physiographic and geologic characteristics: Frontal Cordillera, San Rafael Mountains, Precordillera, Principal Cordillera, Extra-Andean Basin, Huayquerías, Huarpes Bolsón, Uspallata Bolsón and Travesía Bolsón. The geologic time scale is well represented: pre-Paleozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Several orogenic movements are recognized: Ancient (Huronian?), Permo-Triassic (Variscan), and Andean.

Mineralization is related to abundant volcanism and to these movements, especially the later ones. Gypsum is found in abundance in the Upper Jurassic; limestone is plentiful in the Lower Cretaceous and is used for cement from the Ordovician; oil shales occur in the Upper Jurassic; petroleum is produced from Upper Triassic, but probably has its origin in Paleozoic; ground water comes from aquifers in the Quaternary alluvial cones. Although national and provincial geologic mapping is extensive, only a limited amount has yet reached publication. Recent investments in the development of natural resources call for more detailed information on the geology.

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