ABSTRACT

This paper presents the potential depositional framework of sandstones and unconsolidated sand reservoirs, seals, and traps in the western part of the coastal swamp depobelt of the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria, through integration of sequence stratigraphy and seismic imaging. The integration of well logs and biostratigraphic (foraminifera and palynological) data with three-dimensional seismic volume established the sequence stratigraphic framework, which has improved our understanding of the impact of sea-level changes in the distribution of sand facies. Four third-order seismic depositional sequences (sequences 1–4) of Serravallian deposits were identified based on the Vail stratigraphic concept. Depositional processes, structures, thickness, and seismic signatures vary in each sequence. Sequence 1, dominated by mud and very fine-grained sand facies, represents the outer shelf–shelf margin setting and has experienced shale tectonics (ductile deformation). Sequences 2 and 3 consist of alternating sand–shale facies and have experienced gravitational tectonics. Although sequence 2 represents middle shelf–inner shelf setting, sequence 3 represents inner shelf–transitional setting. Sequence 4 consists of thick fluvial–coastal plain sand facies and represents deltaic plain or continental sediments. These deposits reflect postgravitational tectonics. Within the third-order sequences are fourth-order sequences that recorded the interaction between small-scale transgressive–regressive cycles and depositional tectonics. The potential reservoirs within these sequences are stacked channel sandstones, shoreface sandstones, and heteroliths. The juxtaposition of the potential reservoirs against transgressive shales provides potential seals and traps. Structural interpretation shows synthetic and antithetic faults. In addition, event maps at various ages document structural closures that indicate the existence of possible hydrocarbon leads and prospects.

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