The Woodford Shale is anecdotally assumed to be the major source of oil for plays in the Anadarko Basin, including the stacked oil and condensate play in the southcentral Oklahoma oil province (SCOOP). However, there is little published geochemical work to confirm this assumption. This study set out to identify a characteristic geochemical fingerprint for the Goddard Formation, another potential source rock in the SCOOP, to determine if the Goddard is contributing to oil accumulations within the SCOOP. The Upper Mississippian Goddard Formation has been a target for unconventional production in SCOOP since 2012. Published geochemical interpretations for the Goddard Formation are still limited, and this study represents the first detailed oil–source rock correlation for the Goddard in the SCOOP area.
The most characteristic geochemical signature of the Goddard extracts is a predominance of tricyclic terpanes relative to the hopanes in the mass-to-charge ratio 191 chromatogram, possibly related to enrichment via thermal stress or a unique source signature. Additional distinctive signatures were also identified for the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, sesquiterpenoids, and steranes. The biomarker fingerprints of SCOOP oils are nearly identical with those of the Goddard extracts in this study. Oils in the SCOOP, therefore, appear to originate from a Mississippian source, such as the Goddard rather than the Woodford. This observation demonstrates the value of oil–source rock correlation studies and suggests that there may be effective source rocks in the Anadarko Basin that have been overlooked in the past and should be re-evaluated in detail.