Giant sand injection complexes (GSIs) are regionally developed in many petroleum systems and have become well known in deep-water clastic settings in the North Sea, California, offshore Angola, and elsewhere (Hurst and Cartwright, 2007; Huuse et al., 2010). The GSIs form during shallow burial (generally <1.5 km [0.93 mi]) when pore-fluid pressure rises rapidly to exceed the fracture and lithostatic gradients and regional hydraulic failure occurs in the host strata that causes fluidization and injection of sand into a propagating fracture system (Hurst et al., 2011). Once buried more deeply, these sandstone intrusions are significant...

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