Spontaneous cold fluid seepages are a renowned phenomenon occurring in a wide range of geologic and geodynamic settings, including deep sea fans, rapidly subsiding basins, and compressive tectonic settings (e.g., Dimitrov, 2002; Morley et al., 2011; Oppo et al., 2013, 2014). Cold seepages are marked by various structures, both on land and offshore, such as mud volcanoes (MVs), methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDACs), and chemosymbiotic communities. Their formation mechanism requires the increase of pore-fluid pressure above the lithostatic gradient with the subsequent upward fluid migration through hydrofracturing or along carrier beds and tectonic discontinuities.

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Cold seepages have...

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