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The Phanerozoic succession of Saudi Arabia holds the world’s largest liquid hydrocarbon reserves, and the world’s fourth largest gas reserves. This sedimentary succession was deposited on the southwestern margin of the Tethys Ocean, where favorable conditions existed for the optimal juxtaposition of multiple source, reservoir, and seal rocks and the creation of large structural traps. Two major petroleum systems occur in eastern and central Saudi Arabia: a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Paleozoic petroleum system associated with Proto-Tethyan and Paleo-Tethyan settings, and a carbonate-dominated Mesozoic petroleum system associated with the Neo-Tethys. The Paleozoic petroleum system hosts one carbonate and eight siliciclastic oil...

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