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Low-temperature thermochronometers can be used to measure the timing and the rate at which rocks cool. Generally, rocks cool as they move towards Earth’s surface by erosion or normal faulting (tectonic exhumation of the footwall), or warm as they are buried by sediments and/or thrust sheets, or when they are intruded by magma and association hydrothermal fluids. Changes in heat flow or fluid flow can also cause heating or cooling. Apatite fision-track and apatite (U-Th)/He dating have low closure temperatures of ~120° C and ~70° C respectively, and are used to date cooling in the upper ~3–4 km (~1.8–2.4...

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