Biological, Genetic, and Utilitarian Aspects of Limestone Classification1
Published:January 01, 1962
Dan E. Feray, Edward Heuer, Willis G. Hewatt, 1962. "Biological, Genetic, and Utilitarian Aspects of Limestone Classification", Classification of Carbonate Rocks—A Symposium, William E. Ham
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Classification of limestones should consider (1) mode of origin of CaCO3 (chemical [biochemical or physicochemical] and mechanical), (2) form of CaCO3 (skeletal [secretionary] or nonskeletal [accre- tionary or particulate]), and (3) the processes of deposition and accumulation of units of limestone. The biological and other genetic aspects of limestones are interrelated but commonly difficult to evaluate. Studies of modern carbonate sediments demonstrate that organisms play a dominant role in the forma-tion of skeletal and nonskeletal material. Disintegration of skeletal material to fine sand and smaller size generally renders such material unrecognizable regarding its skeletal nature and biological...
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Classification of Carbonate Rocks—A Symposium
Limestones and dolomites form the economically important and exceedingly complex family of carbonate rocks. They are set distinctly apart from related rock families by their intrabasinal and highly local origin, their genetic dependence upon organic activity, and their extreme susceptibility to post- depositional modification.
The successful classification of carbonate rocks requires detailed knowledge of their multiple com-ponents and genetic processes. Such knowledge has been greatly increased during a period of accelerated investigations since 1940, with the result that the modern classifications are marked improvements over their predecessors.
Most of the newer classifications utilize a practical blending of descriptive and genetic parameters. The parameters most commonly used are depositional fabric, particularly the relative abundance of coarser carbonate particles (grains) as compared with the finer grained particles (matrix or micrite); the size and genetic types of the grains or of in-place biotic constituents; the mineralogy; and the nature and degree of post-depositional modification. Secondary parameters include porosity, cementation, the degree of abrasion or rounding of the grains, admixtures of noncarbonate material, and a host of others.
The symposium classifications of carbonate rocks and two allied articles of this volume are briefly reviewed and compared. Despite the differences in approach, purpose, and experience among the various authors, the resulting classifications show strong similarities and therefore indicate that a basis of mutual