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This chapter describes the internal divisions and the orogenic evolution of the Pontides, the northernmost tectonic division of Turkey.

The Pontides are an east-west-trending orogenic belt, representing an amalgamated tectonic entity in which three tectonostratigraphically different sectors can be distinguished: the Western Pontides, the Central Pontides, and the Eastern Pontides. The Western Pontides consist of the Istranca Massif, the istanbul-Zonguldak Zone, the Armutlu-Almacik Zone, and the Sakarya continent. The Eastern Pontides are represented by the following east- west-trending tectonic zones: a magmatic belt, a fore-arc basin fill, a belt of metamorphic massif, an ophiolitic suture zone, and a remnant...

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