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The global carbon cycle has been affected by four major perturbations owing to human activities on land, and global temperature change since the year 1700. The cycle has been, and continues to be, forced by global emissions from fossil-fuel burning, land-use change, agricultural fertilization of croplands, organic sewage discharges, and a slight temperature rise. The atmospheric carbon- dioxide (CO2) change in the past 300 years, as computed from our model analysis, agrees well with the observed increase. The anthropogenic perturbations on land have resulted in an increased delivery of carbon to the coastal ocean and changes in...

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