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Basic types of thrusts recognizable in many orogens include: (1) foreland fold-thrust belt (and accretionary complex) thrusts, (2) Type C crystalline thrust sheets that detach along the ductile- (plastic) brittle transition in either continental or oceanic crust, and (3) Type F (fold-related) crystalline thrust sheets that are generated beneath the ductile-brittle transition by plastically shearing the common limb between antiforms and synforms.

Spacing of thrusts in a foreland fold-thrust belt is determined by the thickness and shear strength of the dominant structural-lithic unit and by basement irregularities, facies changes, and the development of stress maxima that localize buckling instabilities....

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